Academic Reviews

Exploration Through Quotation




Week 4 Summary

As an exercise we were asked to look at four quotes from texts that we had discussed in class and comment on them. Every quote was handled in way: QAQC. This means that every Quote was accompanied with the right Argument, then a critical Question was asked about the (topic of the) quote and finally the quote was put in to broader perspective: Connection.

These are the quotes:

  1. “Admiration is the feelings that sustains democracy.”
  2. “Cultura Ciudadana is not a recipe but an approach.”
  3. “Art is highly explosive. To be worth its salt it must have in that salt a fair sprinkling some gunpowder.The sprinkling can accumulate dangerously if governments don’t provide outlets for symbolic aggression.”
  4. “Art had to practically develop an allergy to any strain of usefulness.”




“Por amor al arte” (For the Love of Art) – Antanas Mockus’s Political slogan 2006

Quotation #1
“Admiration is the feeling that sustains democracy”

Doris Sommer’s Chapter 1 in Work of Art in The World there is a heavy interested into a bottom to top approach into government led urban renewal. Particular evidence is with her writing over Bogota’s most influential mayor, Antanas Mockus (Jan 1995 – April 97) (2001-2003). Mockus ran on the political slogan “Por amor al arte” (For the Love of Art) as to project metaphorically his vision of seeing cities as works of art themselves.

Pre-Mockus, Bogota was noted as having high inequality, gentrification, violence, and corruption. Sommer’s noted the dynamism of active citizenship to transparent leadership. Mocks initial thought to Mayoral duties to redefined the role of citizenship as both passive and participatory in the phrase coined, “spec-actors”.  This is to combat the narrative of obedience equating to punishment and fear as Mockus understand as breeding resentment toward political intervention. He accessed the role of civic culture as legal, morale, and cultural practices noting the divorce of these practices leading to the formal and informal code of behavior. Mockus  take was to implement the empowerment in citizens as being leaders in their own right, by maintaining the principles of humor, creativity, and political consistency.

What can be consider the role and relationship of governmental and sponsored creativity? How does the role of admiration lead to stability in social order of democracy?

From, Bogota’s Improving Civic Behavior Cities on Speed, Angus Mockus had a view of

disconnection of civil behavior and education, and thus lead to civic discourse. He said, “People throw trash of he streets, because it is all they know” (Dalsgaard) On the notion of creative democracy and civic leadership, “Admiration is the feeling that sustains democracy” I think it is better to reframe the quote to be more direct as, democratic citizen engagement and empowerment can lead to stability. It was Mockus investments into Bogata’s infrastructure; parks roads, schools and his creative “artist-like” leadership which allowed for a majority of vote against his political opponents for his reelection. It was his consistent streak in early social programs; mimes as traffic officers, Girls night out, etc, allowed for the public opinion to shift to view his opponents as, “false promises”. Mockus advocated in the the notion of “citizen heroes” as a tagline for community and individual empowerment in Bogota, he taught politicians to trust citizens and visa versa ultimately leading to equal care of their city. 

By Adam

Bogotá Improving Civic Behavior Cities on Speed, You Tube, April 2014

Dalsgaard, Andreas. Bogota’s Improving Civic Behavior Cities on Speed. Produced by Danish Radio. Published on Apr 3, 2014. URL=

Sommer, Doris. The Work of Art in the World: Civic Agency and Public Humanities. Durham,NC: Duke University Press, 2014. Prologue and Chapter 1


Quotation #2
“Cultura Ciudadana is not a recipe but an approach.”

– Antanas Mockus in Doris Summer’s The Work of Art in the World: Civic Agency and Public Humanities, 2014

Cultura Ciudadana is a phrase that is inseparable from Antanas Mockus, former mayor of Bogota (1995-1997, 2000-2003). As mayor Mockus became famous all over the world and was even a hot topic in the Nethelands (NRC, 1997; Volkskrant, 1996), especially during his first term. The reason behind all the fuzz was the unusual and unorthodox way in which Mockus acted, also known as the Cultura Ciudadana. He wanted to part from his predecessors and follow up on his promise of change, but saw that he had to use unconventional methods to do so. And unconventional methods he had. To name 3 examples:

  • He hired over 400 mimes and let them take control over the traffic in Bogota, instead of the (often) corrupt traffic officers. Check out this video to see how this looked.
  • He organized “Night Without Men” for the women of Bogota. On these nights men were put under curfew so that women could have a fun and save night out.
  • He put up signs all over the city trying for the benefit of talking to one another, instead if using violence.

How strange these tactics might seem, they had a major impact. Traffic related deaths dropped, women could have a safe night out and the reported violence was down as well. Because of it Mockus – the “Super Citizen” – was immensely popular.




The whole world stood by and looked at Mockus’ approach and how he succeeded in changing Bogota. His ways seemed to inspire others, but that’s what the quote is about. Mockus knew that his way of doing things was not a recipe, not a solid phased plan that could just be implemented in every country that had a high number of traffic deaths or had a violence problem. His approach is all about accurately assessing the situations in a region to try and change the region for the better.

Could his approach be implemented at a national level?

On the basis of his mime project one might be tempted to say yes, because all over Latin America cities followed this example. But on the other hand there are arguments that might make people think otherwise. As Mockus puts it: his approach counts on “[…] analysis of local conditions.” (Sommer, 2014) It might be that the national government is distant from the local to facilitate the local in an adequate solution for the problems the local population faces. The presidential election in 2010 showed exactly that. Mockus ran for president, but lost because the people were afraid to put their trust in the hands of such an eccentric person and might end up losing everything they had gained under Uribe (Economist, 2010).

As long as we haven’t seen Cultura Ciudadana at a national scale it is impossible to say with a 100% accuracy that it will not work, so until then it will remain a debatable point.

This quote is connected directly to the another quote we had to do research on this week, namely: “Admiration is the feeling that sustains democracy.” This quote of Mockus is about the reason why his approach is a success. This also means that this should be the end goal and implicitly confirms the statement about the Cultura Ciudadana not being a recipe but an approach, since you will not succeed in admiration in every region by doing exactly the same, but rather use an approach in the same creative way to try to reach this goal.

By Karel


Royen, Marjon van. “‘Kabouter’ gooit hoge ogen als presidentskandidaat”. NRC, 10 april 1997.

Burgemeester Bogotá heeft succes met ludieke acties, Volkskrant, 28 februari 1996.

S.B. The Mockus magic runs out, Economist, 31 may 2010.

Doris Sommer. The Work of Art in the World: Civic Agency and Public Humanities. Durham. NC: Duke University Press, 2014. Chapter 1



Quotation #3
“Art is highly explosive. To be worth its salt, it must have in that salt a fair sprinkling of gunpowder. The sprinkling can accumulate dangerously if governments don’t provide outlets for symbolic aggression.”

– Doris Summer’s The Work of Art in the World: Civic Agency and Public Humanities, 2014

Art can have many roles within a society. History shows that art has long been used as a carrier of (religious) messages to the often unlettered people, like stained glass windows in churches depicting passages from the Bible, but also as propaganda in times of war, like Leni Riefenstahl’s movie Triumph Des Willens (1935) or communist propaganda posters from the Mao era in China.
Therefore art, in all its forms and shapes, has always been and always will be an important aspect and shaper of culture and society. Works of art are hardly ever merely aesthetic objects and art is always colored in some way by, on the one hand, factors like the artist’s personal background or motives, his or her preferences, taste and point of view, and on the other hand, by the receptor and his or her education (the museum visitor, the listener, the critic etc.), the period of time it was created and/or presented in and the physical spaces it is being displayed in.

From the many functions art can have in a society I will now focus on the provocative role it can play. Pieces of art can often be the source of discussion around existing or more recently arisen problems or issues within a society, country or group, locally as well as worldwide.

So how can art fulfill the role of provocateur in political or societal problems that may even occupy the daily news and world politics? In order for a work of art to be of significance it must have that ‘gunpowder’ factor; it must have that extra dimension that raises questions and plants the seeds for further discussion in the receptive audience and eventually on a larger scale, like in politics and governments.
This gunpowder factor lies mainly in the provocative, rebellious features pieces of art or artistic projects can have. Art can be the symbolic instigator to political discussions and provider of new dimensions and views on a subject, problem or issue.
By being somewhat more accessible and more easily comprehensible to a larger audience, society-critical art has the symbolic function of passing on messages, just like it did back in the Medieval times, and providing starting points for fiery discussion that may eventually lead to problem-solving outcomes.

An example of this this provocative, rebellious feature of art is clearly represented in pretty recent work of guerilla artist Banksy: his mural of Steve Jobs in the refugee camp in Calais, France. The mural shows late former Apple director Steve Jobs as a refugee with a bin bag over his shoulder and an early Apple computer in his hand. With this mural Banksy wants to point out that we are of misconception that migration is a drain on a country’s resources, since Steve Jobs himself was a son of a Syrian refugee.
Obviously, this statement work of art led to even more intense debates on the refugee subject, especially considering it came at a poignant moment in time, right after the Paris attacks and right-wing politicians around the world calling for borders to be closed to refugees.

The danger however lies in the fact that governments and policy makers may not take this ‘sprinkling of gunpowder’ in works of art seriously enough, maybe even reject it as ‘bothersome mosquito’, leading to an accumulation of frustrations and political dissatisfactions on both the artists’ as well as the public side. Art’s role as provocateur and representation for public opinions and debates may not be underestimated, as it functions as an educated public voice that can lead to sometimes highly necessary turns in or takes on societal problems.
So by making art a means for “social acupunctures” (Sommer, 2014), using art (projects) positively and to shed light on societal problems, it can lead to “collective healing”. Therefore it is important that governments and policy makers do not restrict or disapprove of “guerrilla-like” art, but instead stimulate these forms of art, give artists space to initiate projects and eventually use it as starting points for social debates.

By Iris



Doris Sommer. The Work of Art in the World: Civic Agency and Public Humanities. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2014. Chapter 1



Quotation #4
“Art had practically developed an allergy to any strain of usefulness”

-Doris Sommer, The Work of Art in the World, 2014, p.32

Doris Sommer presents in her first chapter how cultural policy and top-down artistic projects can have an impact on social reality. Largely based on the analyze of Antanas Mockus’s carrier – the mayor of Bogota from 1994 – Sommer proves how his cultural policy has considerably reduced the rate of violence, social incivility and poverty in the city.

Sommer analyzes the cultural policy in democracies, especially in the USA after the WWII. The traumatism of the war lead the exclusion of social or political engagement in art. The governments stopped founding art, because the risk of propaganda through the culture was at that time the first worry. “To an important degree, the hands-off policy responded to a developing retreat of art and interpretation into private subjectivity” (Sommer, 32). Art is isolated, almost sacred and thus artists are pushed out of the social realm. Sommer states that progressively art has been detached from any sense of usefulness – meaning useful for society and connected with the social and political situation.

I look at this phenomenon as the consolidation of a cultural elite and the increasing gap between the so called high and low art. Because of a lack of founding, the art world divorced with the politic and segregated itself into a silver tour. It seems that art and life have lost their connection. Thus, the value of an art piece is reduced to a pure aesthetic or conceptual criteria and the socially engaged artist is considered with disdain.



The Office of Useful Art manifesto, Ikon Gallery, Birmingham, 20 May-1 June 2014


From my perspective, this argument echoes to the “Artificial Hells, Participatory Art and the Politics of Spectatorship” of Claire Bishop (2011), who consider the rise of participatory projects and the ‘critical art’. When Sommer underlines how art rejected any connection with social engagement and usefulness for society, at the contrary Bishop proves how community art tends to ban every kind of aesthetic consideration. So, the debate takes place between the supporters of social utility and the proponents of aesthetic. And both texts show that apparently, it is difficult to consider a legitimate art which would have both an aesthetic value and an useful significance for society.

In a certain way, I myself experimented that questionings: coming from the academic field of art history, I used to feel confined into a closed world separated to the society I was living in. My student life was reduced to the spaces of museums and galleries, and I used to hang out with a socially privileged group of people. At that time, I could not see the point of an useful, engaged, critical or political art. These considerations did have any room in my bubble. If today I turned more myself to participatory art, with a high interest for political and social meanings, I have also been confronted to the deception of a community art project which does not have any thing to do with an art form anymore. Until when a participatory project can be considered as art?

Bishop argues for an ambiguous position that I am still looking for: “Instead of extracting art from the ‘useless’ domain of the aesthetic to relocate it in praxis, the better examples of participatory art occupy an ambiguous territory between ‘art becoming mere life or art becoming mere art’ (Bishop, 40).”

By Morgane

Doris Sommer, The Work of Art in the World: Civic Agency and Public Humanities, Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2014, Chapter 1

Claire Bishop, Artificial Hells: Participatory Art and the Politics of Spectatorship, London and New York: Verso, 2011, Chapter 1 “The Social Turn: Collaboration and Its Discontents”


Related articles
The Goethe Institut: Useful Art. What Role Can Art Play in Politics?




September 20th, 2016

Reading response week 3

Doris Sommer. The Work of Art: Civic Agency and Public Humanities

In the first chapter of her book, Doris Sommer takes a good amount of time to elaborate on several projects that have been introduced in cities like Bogota and how they have been utilized to work in favor of the city. I think I do not need to dwell about how Bogota (and Colombia as a whole) are looked upon by most of the (Western) world. The general stereotype is that it is a dangerous and corrupt country. Attempts to change cities like Bogota (or countries like Colombia for that matter) seem a futile effort, as such thinking is usually reserved for naives and the goody goody two shoes in the world. That may be the case, but in 1995 Antans Mockus became mayor of Bogota and tried anyway.

Mockus, the former president of the National University of Colombia never really was what you might call a regular president of a university. The most obvious example is the way he got the attention of the students during a student riot at the university. As nobody seemed to listen to him and people continued booing while he was on stage he proceeded to drop his pants and show everyone his ass. The whole ordeal was caught on camera and was shown on national television A bad example some said, but to the general public it showed how genuine and honest he was. He became very popular and decided to run for mayor, independently. Whilst running for office he then put on a super hero outfit and became Super Citizen and was seen all through the city, making a stance against pollution.

As if this was not enough, please consider the following. He was going to hold a speech in his campaign to become mayor when a student took his microphone and did not give it back. All most all politicians would do anything to not get into a fight, but Mockus lost his composure and got into a fist fight on television. What is most striking about this (no pun intended) is that he even became more popular because of it. He went on to become the first independent mayor of Bogota and won with the largest majority as well.

When in office his main goal was to change the mindset/behaviour of the people in Bogota and he used art and comical instruments to reach his goals. Mockus hired mime artists to regulate the traffic in Bogota’s notoriously dangerous streets instead of the regular traffic officers. When he saw that it worked he fired over 3000 apparent corrupt police officers and made an offer that 400 of them could come back, but only if they would undergo mime training and and became mimes. At first many people doubted is ways but gradually people saw that his ways actually changed the city, and in this case aggression and accidents in traffic decreased.

He installed the so called Carrot Laws. A Carrot is, in Colombia, a person who does not smoke or drink. These laws were made to prevent people from getting too drunk and start fights that a lot of times ended in bloodshed and also aimed to reduce traffic accidents that were caused by drunk driving. His artistic/creative approach to deal with Bogota’s problems seemed to make a difference. As one of the mimes put it: “Through art and our aesthetic and the ethic expression we will educate the citizens.”

In Bogota the law prohibits consecutive terms in office. For Mockus this meant he had to make way for others. In 1998 Peñalosa became mayor of Bogota. He too was really trying to change the city for the better, but did this in a completely other way than Mockus. Peñalosa did this in a more corporate way than Mockus. He literally started rebuilding the city. Because he had many long term plans and Peñalosa also had to deal with the fact that he could not be reelected, he looked for the best candidate to follow him up, so that all that he did would not have been for nothing. Even though Mockus was not fond of all the things Peñalosa did, he still saw potential in the general thought of his plans. Together they made a deal, if Peñalosa supported Mockus, the latter would promise to continue the long term efforts made by the first. And so began his second term as mayor of Bogota.

In his second term he was less extravagant compared to his first term, not just in ludic appearances, but also in the way he governed. He was more about building the city that building morale and was teaching the citizens how to take care of their city.

The way Mockus changed his beloved Bogota to me exemplifies the Society in Art and Society, without forgetting the first part. He used his creative wits and unorthodox approach to make an impact on the society. As is said in the chapter of Sommer, this approach most likely would not work in all cultures, but it does show what an honest and genuine approach combined with creativity could accomplish.

To end this entry appropriately, please watch the following video!


By Karel


Doris Sommer. The Work of Art in the World: Civic Agency and Public Humanities. Durham,
NC: Duke University Press, 2014. Chapter 1

Andreas Dalsgaard. Cities on Speed: Bogota Change. NHK. 2009



Reading Response to Chapter 1 from The Work of Art in the World: Civic Agency and Public Humanities by Doris Sommer

In chapter one Doris Sommer zooms in on government-sponsored, top-down use of creativity. She opens the chapter by illustrating the subject with an example of the mayor of Bogota who used mime players as traffic directors in order to fight crime in the city. Sommer calls this “cultural acupunctures” of “urban acupunctures”. These are small, yet symbolic and creative uses of forms of art used for “collective healing”.

According to Sommer governors attempt to direct creativity towards “harmonization”. The Bogota case is a great example of how a creative take on a certain issue can be very good solution.

Sommer addresses the “civic culture”, a culture in which civilians actively take part, also on the cultural front, and together work towards harmonization and the solving of certain issues. She calls this the “act up” experience; a collaboration without submission. The actors in this are the “artists citizens”.

She goes on by focusing on politics and creativity uses in and by politics. She describes this by stating that in fascism cultural outlets can have a “chorus effect” (Triumph de Willens) and has a dictatorial character, whereas in democracy they have a rippling effect and have arts a more democratic character.

By Iris


Doris SommerThe Work of Art in the World: Civic Agency and the Public Humanities


Chapter 1
Sommer presents different examples of art community projects and demonstrates the role and impact of art into the civil society. For the city of Bogota for example, is depicted a proposition for social improvement and violence prevention in collaboration mimes artists or feminist movements; Art is presented as a civic education proposal. He describes then the Mockus’ involvement into social program for the city of Bogota. This example can be used to show how a cultural policy involving the population can impact and improve the social reality of a city. The promotion of pedagogic program and the recognition of citizens as artists create a local effervescence proper to democratic systems. The development of aesthetic senses with students for instance, proves his positive consequences into their social involvement and the violence prevention.

Based on individual’s desires, play and pleasure, a new kind of cultural policy represents an alternative to security measures, against crimes. Creativity development of individualities is presented as a solution against violence in order to provoke social change.

By Morgane



Doris SommerThe Work of Art in the World: Civic Agency and the Public Humanities

Reading Response Week 2 

In Madison; Critical Ethnography Chapter 1, the author starts the text concerning her personal experience in ethnographic fieldwork over human right activist and developments in Ghana. Her reflection became of viewing indie film of pseudo-reaction to modern day Africa. The documentary in questions was of a “filmmaker” emphasis the role of, “backwards Africa” in relation to Western Society. This display perpetuates the ignorance in the Western wold as Africa; the tribal, underdeveloped, and human-rights abuser. The context in particular was tribal culture handling of FGM, or Female Genital Mutation. The authors main perspective is the public access to misleading information by documentary communication, this includes ethnographic work. The metaphorical introduction is juxtaposed to the questioning of ethics and morality in ethnographic work. The morale dilemma into documenting field is advocating for a more, “pristine” version of academic communicating or even in the public domain. Guidance of pristine, meaning of understanding and subjecting our own personal experience to exist outside the realm of the researcher role. Madison addressed this as, “Resisting domestication in ethnography,” as in misleading what should be non-biases work interwoven with personhood. The lens of ethnography is primarily through the observer role inherently, “not subjectively inserting privilege or cultural up bring in qualitative data and academia” Madison, pp. 7.

Therefore the ethnography should consider role of “critique,” in their work. To answer Madison’s question, “How do we represent others and their worlds for just purpose,” we have to understand the nature of critique. Critique being of acknowledging our own privilege and purpose in relation to the work, defining ones own power with the work; especially for the ability to denounce power, and not to “wash” data in inserting personal preference or using data to articulate misleading information. My personal reliability to the piece is my experience with ethnographic work. My anthropology bachelor required a semester long course in the examination and practice of ethnography. In my particular piece I had to separate my state of secular academic and into an immersive role at a hometown church. My role strictly had to be defined as two associated values, “participant – observer.” My tone to the work had to be that as a “full immersed participant” rather than of exemplifying my contrasting beliefs to this particular power structure and religious advocates.

Nestor Garcia Canclini; Art Beyond Itself Ch 1

In Nestor Garcia Canclini; Art Beyond Itself Ch 1: the author is in examination of the historical context of the 20th century avant gande movements. The emphasis being the the concept of

experimentation” over “representation,” in the transition of art movement. Considering the transition of modern art process to post-modern. The focus now being of the idea of social engagement as the predominate factor of process over values of Modern; shock, erratic, reflective, etc. This frame is being shaped by the European model vs US model of public funding artworks. The citation to the Bourdieu and Haacke argument over governments concerning more regulation with less funding. The outdate from being of private patronage in the neoliberalism sphere as museums, galleries, operating as independent individual actors.  This is contrasted to states role as public funders and the notion of community funding into the arts. The MET becomes the an intertwined example both of private and public funding. Knowing the MET; the museum operates over several sources of funding; state-subsides, private patronage, and public donation upon entering. This comes as the cost of understanding the “difference between philosophical aesthetics and social science-based theories,” as in what is “art,” how should it be framed in the 21st century. The publicly-funded museum being the outdated model of present artworks. Collaboration being the prevailing thought based out of social-science theory as “art”.   The third perspective Canclini gives is the anthropological view of the role of an artist, themselves. This giving way to the ethnographic approach to the study of the role of artist. The summary of this being the, “collapsing of autonomy.” In summary, all these connections lead to an ethnographic approach of cross disciplinary, intermedia, and globalized turn to research.

By Adam


Soyini Madison; Critical Ethnography Ch 1

Nestor Garcia Canclini; Art Beyond Itself Ch 1

Reading Response to Chapter 2 from Critical Ethnography: Method, Ethics, and Performance by D. Soyini Madison
(about the author)

Chapter 2 from Critical Ethnography: Method, Ethics, and Performance by D. Soyini Madison, is about doing ethnographic research and provides a kind of toolbox for doing this kind of research.

Madison is a professor of Performance Studies. Throughout her career she has focused mainly on human rights, and indigenous performance tactics. She spent some time in Ghana to do ethnographic fieldwork research. Her subjects of interest are feminism as well as African Studies and in zooming in of different subject within her fields of interest, she mainly takes an activism of performance point of view. Performance is embodied in public and can be described as ‘a different way of knowing’, a more symbolic way. Activism is aimed at social change within society.

Her book Critical Ethnography has been her most successful work, cited by many scholars worldwide.

By Iris

Soyini Madison, Critical Ethnography: Method, Ethics, and Performance, 2005

Ethnographic Method – Chapter 2

In her second chapter, Madison focuses on the ethnographic method, detaching three interconnected steps in the process:

  • Researcher’s perspective and writing the project
  • Preparation for the fieldwork: type of questions
  • The rapport

The entire chapter is really well organized, with clear different parts and underlined titles. It appears like a precise guide for beginners in ethnographic research. She proposes different methods and approaches, highlighting the necessity for each individual to build his own method according to him and his study object. Thus, we can consider the text as an opened theoretical guide, that we must make our own into practice.

As Madison writes, the methods she proposes must to be seen as processes to achieve a goal or purpose. She rules objectivity out and invites the future researcher to focus first on himself. Being aware of your background, your privileges and inner motivations will make your study more relevant. You can take example on other ethnographic studies, but never forget to critically analyze those.
Defining a population of study and draw a concrete problematic are the first steps. It appears essential to build a plan and also agree with the participants how the study is taking place, a research design and a lay summary.

For the field part, Madison proposes two models for questions: The Patton and the Spradley models. The first one focuses on an observation of the behaviors and it questions the individual’s experience, opinion, feelings and knowledge. The Spradley model is more about description testimony, i.e. the answers of the participant describing the circumstances, experience feelings and opinion.  Another type of interview would be the history interview based on memory, mixing oral personal stories and collective memory.

The last part is about recording the interview, report it and analyze the data. She warns us about the different risks and depicts the classical threats of beginners before presenting the alternative model of Amira De La Garza, called the Four Seasons of Ethnography.

By Morgane

Soyini Madison, Critical Ethnography: Method, Ethics, and Performance, 2005

Chapter to of Madison’s, Critical Ethnography: Method, Ethics, and Performance is an examination and guide for ethnographic field research. The introduction to the chapter is in understanding the “turf war” to the mythology of fieldwork; as in the fundamental conceptual nature of ethnography. As one side focusing of different attributions to fieldwork; matter of theory, subjectivity, and cultural understanding. The second identity being of precision, validation, evidence. The exemplifying quote being, ‘Sometimes theory obstructs method and sometimes method is theory.” It’s better to understand the inter-related roles of method and theory with several attached principles such as above.

The aim of the chapter is in understanding, “What is Ethnographic Method,” which the material of the text being presented in a practical manner. The first sub-header of, “Who am I,” advocates for start the research design in an inter-reflective perspective, as in, understanding and probing the self and ones society can lead to finding a research topic. Once a topic is selected the further move being of inquiring into interrelated material on the said topic; other text, media, news, etc. I would consider the inherit summary of the following text is for the advocacy of fluidity in research design and questioning. Allowing your line of questioning to evolve and backtracking of the original design as fundamentals to laying research purpose.

Interviewing and field techniques should be considered precise and predetermined for the subject while drawing from research design, yet allow for abstract response for possibility of other outlets of research or questioning ideas. In formulating questions the author relays the two classical models of quantitative researching; the patton model of using sensory, behavioral, and

opinion questioning styles; and the Spradley model of using descriptive, experience, and contrasting questioning.

The just of the rest of the article is further examination of ethnographic procedure. I think the central pull from the piece is understanding a personal reflective stance when engaging with ethnographic work, especially in the level of immersing research is willing to go. My personal projection advocates for the advancement of full immersion into fieldwork. That the most pure form of reflective ethnographic learning is to maintain relationships are a attribute of gaining entry into subject matter. Full immersion blurs the line between professional academic work and reality, more so to me, it breaks more of a, “barrier” allowing for full engage of reality and evens the roles presented in ethnographic research.

Summers, The Work of Art in the World Civic is an examination of the social discourse present in art and urban renewal. The current role of art revitalization is progressing toward harmonization however there is a contrast in the art world to ignore censorship of official interests. This questions to role of government in the art world as a producer. The author frames the grassroots possibilities in government role as citizens lean the production through, “transparent leadership,” to avoid cultural revolution or revolt against governmental power

The actions of governments in countries like Columbia, Albania, Mexico, and the U.S (namely in the New Deal), lead in positive and creative government intervention, or in the role of Anatas Mockus, Mayor of Bogota, who neglected credit in leadership and yield to a “developed collective leadership.” Taking to a, “citzens – as – artist” approach as Mockus did, allowed for a collective connections to the millions responsible for the art works and urban revitalization. The final thing to consider is the societal tolerance, namely governmental, into innovating art world for cities. The overall aim is to create more productive and creativity citizens for evolving sectors however what is the role when public artworks fill a role into government opposition.

By Adam


D. Soyini Madison. Critical Ethnography: Method, Ethics, and Performance (second edition). Los Angeles: Sage Publications, 2012. Chapter 2

Doris Sommer. The Work of Art in the World: Civic Agency and Public Humanities. Durham,NC: Duke University Press, 2014. Prologue and Chapter 1